West African Monsoon 

Modeling and Evaluation

  WAMME Initiative
  Experiment - I
  West  African Monsoon and its Modeling Special Issue
  WAMME-2 Documents
   WAMME-2 Models
   WAMME-2 Experiments
   WAMME-2 Forcing
   WAMME-2 Output List
   WAMME-2 Participants
  Working Group
  Highlights of new  African simulations
 WAMME Related:
  AMMA International
  UCAR Africa Initiative


Druyand, L. M. and Fulakeza, M. 2014: The impact of the Atlantic cold tongue on West African monsoon onset in regional model simulations for 1998–2002. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY Int. J. Climatol, Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/joc.3980.


Lee, J. H. ,T. Pellarin, Y. H. Kerr, Inversion of soil hydraulic properties from the DEnKF analysis of SMOS soil moisture over West Africa, Agri. Forest. Meteo. 2014. Vol.188. P.76-88.


Diatta, S. and A. H. Finkc, 2014: Statistical relationship between remote climate indices and West African monsoon variability.  Int. J. Climatol., DOI: 10.1002/joc.3912.


Hagos, S., L. Ruby Leung, Y. Xue, A. Boone, F. de Sales, N. Neupane, M. Huang, J.-H. Yoon, 2014, Assessment of uncertainties in the response of the African monsoon precipitation to land use change simulated by a regional model. Clim Dyn, DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2092-x


Rowell, D.P., 2013: Simulating SST Teleconnections to Africa: What is the State of the Art? J. Climate, 26, 5397-5417.


Dieppois, B., A. Diedhiou, A. Durand, M. Fournier, N. Massei, D. Sebag, Y. Xue, and B. Fontaine, 2013, Quasi-decadal signals of Sahel rainfall and West African monsoon since the mid-twentieth century, J. Geophys. Res., Atmos., 118, doi:10.1002/2013JD019681.


Ma H-Y, C. R. Mechoso, Y. Xue, H. Xiao, J. D. Neelin, and X. Ji, 2013: On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system.  J. Climate, 26, 9006-9025. http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/ 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00819.1.  (This paper mainly discusses the impact of African land processes on the ENSO frequency)


Druyan Leonard M. and Matthew Fulakeza, 2012: Propagation of Convective Complexes Observed by TRMM in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic,The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, 6, 1-8.


Xue, Y., Aaron Boone, and Christopher M. Taylor, 2012: Review of Recent Developments and the Future Prospective in West African Atmosphere/Land Interaction Studies. in "Advances in Climate Processes, Feedbacks, Variability, and Change for the West African Climate System" special Issue, International Journal of Geophysics,Volume 2012, Article ID 748921, doi:10.1155/2012/748921.


Ackerley, D., Booth, B.B.B., Knight, S.H.E., Highwood, E.J., Frame, D.J., Allen, M.R. and Rowell, D.P., 2011: Sensitivity of 20th century Sahel rainfall to sulphate aerosol and CO2 forcing. J. Climate, 24, 4999-5014.


Druyan Leonard M. and Matthew Fulakeza,2011:The sensitivity of African easterly waves to eastern tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperatures,Meteorol Atmos Phys,113:39–53,DOI 10.1007/s00703-011-0145-9.


Ruti, P.M., J E Williams, F Hourdin, F Guichard, A Boone, P Van Velthoven, F Favot, I Musat, M Rumukkainen, M Domínguez, M Á Gaertner, JP Lafore, T Losada, MB Rodriguez de Fonseca, J Polcher, F Giorgi,Y Xue, I Bouarar, K.Law, B. Josse, B. Barret, X. Yang,C Mari, AK Traore,.,2011:The West African climate system: a review of the AMMA model inter-comparison initiatives, Atmos. Sci. Let. 12: 116–122.


Druyan, Leonard M. Matthew Fulakeza, Patrick Lonergan, Ruben Worrell, 2010:  Regional Model Nesting within GFS Daily Forecasts Over West Africa. The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, 4, DOI: 10.2174/1874282301004010001.


Boone, A., I. Poccard-Leclerq, Y. Xue, J. Feng, and P. de Rosnay, 2010 : Evaluation of the WAMME model surface fluxes using results from the AMMA land-surface model  intercomparison projectIn Special Issue “West African Monsoon and its Modeling”, Climate Dynamics. 35, 127-142, DOI 10.1007/s00382-009-0653-1.


Druyan, L.M., 2010:  Review Studies of 21st-century precipitation trends over West Africa, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY Int. J. Climatol. Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com)  DOI: 10.1002/joc.2180.


 Druyan, L.M., J. Feng, K.H. Cook, Y. Xue, M. Fulakeza, S.M. Hagos, A. Konare, W. Moufouma-Okia, D.P. Rowell, and E.K. Vizy, 2010: The WAMME regional model intercomparison studyIn Special Issue “West African Monsoon and its Modeling”, Climate Dynamics35, 175-192, DOI 10.1007/s00382-009-0676-7.


Kim, K.-M., K-M Lau, Y C Sud, and G K Walker, 2010: Influence of aerosol -radiative forcings on the diurnal and seasonal cycles of rainfall over West Africa and Eastern Atlantic Ocean using GCM simulations In Special Issue “West African Monsoon and its Modeling”, Climate Dynamics35, 115-126, DOI 10.1007/s00382-010-0750-1.


Moufouma-Okia, W. and D. P. Rowell, 2010: Impact of soil moisture initialisation and lateral boundary conditions on regional climate model simulations of the West African Monsoon.   In Special Issue “West African Monsoon and its Modeling”, Climate Dynamics35,  213-230, doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0638-0. 


Patrocila C. M. and Kerry Cook, 2010: North African Precipitation and Monsoon Dynamics at the end of the 21st Century: Regional Climate Model Development and Simulations. In Special Issue “West African Monsoon and its Modeling”, Climate Dynamics,  35, 193-212, DOI 10.1007/s00382-009-0623-7. 


Xue, Y., F. De Sales, K-M W. Lau, A. Boone, J. Feng, P. Dirmeyer, Z. Guo, K.-M. Kim, A. Kitoh, V. Kumar, I. Poccard-Leclercq, N. Mahowald, W. Moufouma-Okia, P. Pegion, D. Rowell, S. D. Schubert, A. Sealy, W. M. Thiaw, A. Vintzileos, S. Williams, M.-L C. Wu, 2010: Intercomparison and analyses of the climatology of  the West African Monsoon in the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project (WAMME) First Model Intercomparison Experiment.  In Special Issue “West African Monsoon and its Modeling”, Climate Dynamics35, 3-28, doi: 10.1007/s00382-010-0778-2.


Xue, Y. and Fernando De Sales, Ratko Vasic, C.Roberto Mechoso, Akio Arakawa and Stepphen Pronce,2010: Global and Seasonal Assessment of Interactions between Climate and Vegetation Biophysical Processes: A GCM Study with Different Land-Vegetation Representations. J. Climate, 23, 1411-1433.


Druyan, L.M., M. Fulakeza, P. Lonergan and E. Noble, 2009:Regional climate model simulation of the AMMA Special Observing Period #3 and the pre-Helene easterly wave, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics. DOI: 10.1007/s00703-009-0044-5.


Zeng, N. and J. Yoon, 2009: Expansion of the world’s deserts due to vegetation-albedo
feedback under global warming
, Geoph. Res. Let., 36, L17401, doi:10.1029/2009GL039699.

Druyan, L.M., M. Fulakeza, P. Lonergan, 2007: Spatial variability of regional model simulated June–September mean precipitation over West Africa, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L18709, DOI 10.1029/ 2007 GL031270.


Druyan, L.M., M. Fulakeza, P. Lonergan, 2007:The impact of vertical resolution on regional model simulation of the west African summer monsoon, International Journal of Climatology, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1636.


Kang, H.-S., Y. Xue, and G. J.  Collatz, 2007:  Impact Assessment of Satellite-Derived Leaf Area Index Datasets Using a General Circulation ModelJ. Climate, 20, 993-1015.


Li, W.-P., Y. Xue, and I. Poccard, 2007:  Numerical Investigation of the Impact of Vegetation Indices on the Variability of West African Summer Monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85a, 363-383.


Cook K.-H. and E.K. Vizy, 2006: Coupled Model Simulations of the West African Monsoon System: 20th century Simulations and 21st Century Predictions J. Climate, 19, 3681-3703.  


Douville, H., S. Conil, S. Tyteca, A. Voldoire, 2006: Soil moisture memory and West African monsoon predictability:artefact or reality?, Climate Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s00382-006-0207-8.


Druyan, L.M., M. Fulakeza, P. Lonergan, 2006: Mesoscale analyses of West African summer climate: focus on wave disturbances, Climate Dynamics, 26, DOI 10.1007/s00382-006-0141-9.


Lau, K.M., M. K. Kim, and K. M. Kim, 2006:  Asian summer monsoon anomalies induced by aerosol direct forcing: the role of the Tibetan PlateauClimate Dynamics, 26, 855-864.


Lau, K. M., J. Matsumoto, M. Ballasinno, and H. Berbery, 2004:  Validation of diurnal variability over monsoon regions: a CIMS pilot studyCEOP Newsletter 5, 2-4.


G. Wang, E. A. B. Eltahir, J. A. Foley, D. Pollard, and S. Levis, 2004: Decadal variability of rainfall in the Sahel: results from the coupled GENESIS-IBIS atmosphere-biosphere model, Climate Dynamics, 22, 625C637.


 Xue, Y., H.-M. H. Juang, W. Li, S. Prince, R. DeFries, Y. Jiao, R. Vasic, 2004a: Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West AfricaJ. Geophy.  Res., 109, D03105, doi:10.1029/2003JD003556.


 Xue, Y., R.W.A. Hutjes, R.J. Harding, M. Claussen, S. Prince, E. F. Lambin, S. J. Allen, P. Dirmeyer, T. Oki, 2004b: The Sahelian Climate (Chapter A5) in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate, Eds, P. Kabat, M. Claussen, P. A. Dirmeyer, et al., Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, P59-77.


 Prospero, J. M. and P. J. Lamb, 2003: African Droughts and Dust Transport to the Caribbean: Climate Change Implications, Science 302, 1024 – 1027.


Rowell, D. P., 2003: The Impact of Mediterranean SSTs on the Sahelian Rainfall Season, 16, 849-8610.


Zeng, N., 2003, Drought in the Sahel, Science, 302, 999– 1000.


Xue, Y. and J. Shukla, 1998: model simulation of the influence of global SST anomalies on the Sahel rainfallMon. Wea. Rev., 126, 2782-2792.


Xue, Y., 1997: Biosphere feedback on regional climate in tropical north Africa.  Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc, 123, B, 1483-1515.


Xue, Y. and J. Shukla, 1993:  The influence of land surface properties on Sahel climate.  Part I: Desertification.  J. Climate , 6, 2232-2245.